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甲醛生态学资料

网址:www.chujiaquan58.com  2021-07-14  作者:admin    阅读:

甲醛生态学资料
Data of formaldehyde ecology
1、残留与蓄积:资料记载,工业企业区土壤中吸附的甲醛含量可达180-720mg/kg干土。土壤的污染可导致地下水污染,水中甲醛含量可以比表层土高出10-20倍。
1. Residue and accumulation: according to the data, the content of formaldehyde adsorbed in the soil of industrial enterprise area can reach 180-720mg / kg dry soil. Soil pollution can lead to groundwater pollution, and the formaldehyde content in water can be 10-20 times higher than that in topsoil.
甲醛在环境中颇稳定,当水中甲醛浓度为5mg/L时(20℃),观察结果表明,5天内可以保持恒定。水中甲醛浓度为<20mg/L时,可以被曝气池中经驯化的微生物降解消化。而含量为100mg/L时,能抑制微生物对有机物的氧化。当水中甲醛含量为500mg/L时,生物耗氧过程全部中止,水中微生物被杀死。
Formaldehyde is quite stable in the environment. When the concentration of formaldehyde in water is 5mg / L (20 ℃), the observation results show that it can be kept constant within 5 days. When the formaldehyde concentration in the water is less than 20mg / L, it can be degraded and digested by the domesticated microorganism in the aeration tank. When the content is 100mg / L, it can inhibit the oxidation of organic matter by microorganisms. When the formaldehyde content in the water is 500mg / L, the process of biological oxygen consumption stops completely, and the microorganisms in the water are killed.
2、代谢和降解:环境中甲醛的主要污染来源是有机合成、化工、合成纤维、染料、木材加工及制漆等行业排放的废水、废气等。某些有机化合物在环境中降解也产生甲醛,如氯乙烯的降解产物也包含甲醛。由于甲醛有强的还原性,在有氧化性物质存在条件下,能被氧化为甲酸。例如进入水体环境中的甲醛可被腐生菌氧化分解,因而能消耗水中的溶解氧。甲酸进一步的分解产物为二氧化碳和水。进入环境中的甲醛在物理、化学和生物等的共同作用下,被逐渐稀释氧化和降解。甲醛的氧化降解过程如下:
2. Metabolism and degradation: the main pollution sources of formaldehyde in the environment are waste water and waste gas from industries such as organic synthesis, chemical industry, synthetic fiber, dye, wood processing and paint making. The degradation of some organic compounds in the environment also produces formaldehyde. For example, the degradation products of vinyl chloride also contain formaldehyde. Because formaldehyde has strong reducibility, it can be oxidized to formic acid in the presence of oxidizing substances. For example, formaldehyde entering water environment can be oxidized and decomposed by saprophytic bacteria, so it can consume dissolved oxygen in water. The further decomposition products of formic acid are carbon dioxide and water. Formaldehyde entering the environment is gradually diluted, oxidized and degraded under the joint action of physics, chemistry and biology. The oxidative degradation process of formaldehyde is as follows:
3、迁移转化:甲醛由于沸点低又易溶于水,所以主要通过大气和水排放进入环境。生产甲醛的工厂其未处理的气体,当排放高度为18米时,其距工厂250-500米的大气样品中,甲醛含量均在0.035mg/m³以上。1000米远在大气中甲醛浓度在嗅阈以下。以甲醛作鞣剂生产塑料的企业周围大气中的甲醛浓度在嗅阈以下。以甲醛作鞣剂生产塑料的企业周围大气中的甲醛浓度距厂区100米内为0.012mg/m³;200米处36个样品中有15个浓度低于0.012mg/m³;400米处均低于0.012mg/m³。
3. Migration and Transformation: formaldehyde is mainly discharged into the environment through the atmosphere and water due to its low boiling point and easy solubility in water. When the emission height of the untreated gas in the factory producing formaldehyde is 18 meters, the formaldehyde content in the air sample 250-500 meters away from the factory is more than 0.035mg/m3. Formaldehyde concentration in the atmosphere is below the olfactory threshold. The concentration of formaldehyde in the air around the enterprises that use formaldehyde as tanning agent to produce plastics is below the olfactory threshold. The concentration of formaldehyde in the air around the enterprises that use formaldehyde as tanning agent to produce plastics is 0.012mg/m3 within 100m from the plant area; 15 of the 36 samples at 200m are less than 0.012mg/m3; and the concentration at 400m is less than 0.012mg/m3.
工业废水中排放的甲醛含量由于行业

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不同有很大差别,其中浓度最高的甲醛废水是生产酚醛树脂的上层焦油废水,含甲醛量高达2.5%。
The formaldehyde content of industrial wastewater varies greatly due to different industries, among which the highest concentration of formaldehyde wastewater is the upper tar wastewater producing phenolic resin, with the formaldehyde content up to 2.5%

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